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Pietro Garau:加强合作,用规划打造城市的未来

2016-11-02 09:13 来源:中国城市规划网

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2016年10月31日,住建部会同福建省人民政府与联合国人居署,在厦门共同主办“2016世界城市日” 论坛。意大利规划学会国际事务协调人Pietro Garau受邀出席了下午举行的以“多元视角下的包容性城市治理”为主题的专家论坛,并接受了中国城市规划网记者的采访。意大利规划学会和中国城市规划学会在联合国人居三筹备过程中共同担任第六政策小组组长单位。

意大利规划学会国际事务协调人Pietro Garau受邀出席专家论坛,论坛由中国城市规划学会秘书长石楠主持

记者:如何通过诸如“世界城市日”这样的活动促进《新城市议程》的实施?

How to implement NUA through such tools like WCD etc.?

Pietro Garau:

这不是个简单的问题,但问得很关键。首先,在我看来,诸如“世界城市日”这样的纪念日活动十分重要。从设立到现在,“世界城市日”的关注度在不断增加。我觉得,利用“世界城市日”这样的活动促进《新城市议程》的实施最好的办法之一,就是坚持在未来几年的“世界城市日”活动中,吸引全球城市政府和民间社会关注联合国各成员国改善本国大中小城市人居环境质量的情况,实施可持续发展目标和《新城市议程》目标的情况。

Well, it is not a simple question, but it’s an important question. First of all, the importance of tools like WCD seems to me that, they have been increasing the attention importance from the beginning. So, I think probably one of the best tools to keep up the world’s attention on cities and governments and civil societies to the commitments member states of the UN, for example, have taken, with regards to for improving the quality of lives in cities, large and small, and commitments like of course the SDGs and NUA.

具体来说,我提议我们可以策划未来几年的“世界城市日”的主题,将这些主题与《新城市议程》的某些具体关键目标联系起来。因为总体而言,《新城市议程》是一个综合全面的文件,各方面考虑比较周到。但是对我们来说,选出其中的一些目标每年进行评估可能会更有效。我们在“世界城市日”不是要空谈这些目标、承诺多么美好,而是要实实在在检验这些目标的实施情况。

Probably one thing that one could think of would be to think of themes for next few years’ WCD, which could specifically link to some key aspects of the NUA. Because, basically, the NUA is a comprehensive document, it has its own balance, but it might be useful to isolate some aspects of the NUA, perhaps to look at them each year. Not only to have presentation on how nice these objectives and commitments are, but really to check our progress in achieving these objectives.

意大利规划学会国际事务协调人Pietro Garau接受中国城市规划网记者采访

记者:职业规划师可以在实施《新城市议程》过程中发挥什么作用呢?

How planner as professional could play a key role in implementation of NUA?

Pietro Garau:

我刚才听到国际城市与区域规划师学会副主席马丁·杜贝宁先生在发言中提到,城市和区域规划可能不仅仅对于实现第11个可持续发展目标(可持续的城市和社区)能发挥关键作用,更可以影响17个可持续发展目标中的大部分发展目标的成败。我同意他的说法。当然我这么说可能有失偏颇,因为我本人就是一名城市规划师,我代表意大利规划学会的立场。而我们学会成立于1930年,历史相当悠久。但我确实相信,规划是关键。

I think we just heard from the vice president of ISOCARP Mr. Martin Dubbeling that urban and territorial planning is probably the key to achieving not just the SDG 11, but most if not all the SDGs. And I think he is right, of course may be I am a planner, I might be a bit biased. I am representing the National Institute of Planning in Italy, which was rather old, which was founded in 1930. But I do think that planning is really the key.

2015年,我有机会受邀参加在米兰举行的“世界城市日”庆祝活动并发表主旨演讲。我当时演讲的题目就叫做“城市通过设计拯救地球”。这么说是两层意思,一是要主动靠城市来拯救地球,也表示我们需要通过城市规划和设计来拯救地球。规划设计和城市的未来明显相关,以前我们竟然没有这样想过。

In 2015, I have the opportunity to present my views on this topic in a keynote address in Milan when the WCD was celebrated there. And I titled my address as Cities Saving the Planet by Design. This was a pan, a game of words, meaning saving the planet intentionally, also saving the planet through urban planning and design. I think the connection is so obvious that it’s surprising that we haven’t thought of that before.

我们都知道,从现在到2050年只有不到25年了,到那时世界的人口将增加25亿人,其中96%的新增人口将居住在发展中国家的城市里。这是我们面临的巨大挑战,很明显,如果这些新增的人口要在发展中国家的城市定居下来,这些城市就必须转而采用对这些新市民友好的城镇化模式。如果这些发展中国国家规划失误,那将是一场灾难。

We know that between now and the year 2050, there is less than 25 years, the world’s population will increase by 2.5 billion people, 96% of this population increase will be in the cities of developing countries. It is a huge challenge that we will have to face, and it’s obvious that if these new populations are housed and located, the urbanization pattern will be developed inevitably to welcome these new citizens of the world. It will be a disaster if it is not planned in an intelligent way.

我们刚听香港的嘉宾介绍说,我引用下他的一个数据,在香港1000多平方公里的面积居住着700多万人口。这么算起来,香港的人口密度是非常高了。但实际上更高,因为香港的所有人口都集中在整个特区的25%土地上。跟常理推断相反,香港这么小的地方,人们却拥有很高的城市绿化率。所以,这个例子表明,城市规划可以为接纳很多的新移民提供非常明智的解决办法。

We just heard from HK, where I heard a very interesting statistics from them, that if I remember, correctly, we are talking about more than 700 million people over 1000 km2. So the density is very high. It is even higher in HK because the population is concentrated in only 25% of the territory of HK, which means that paradoxically there is plenty of green space even in this rather small area for considering the number of people. So it is obvious that planning can produce very intelligent solutions to welcome even high high numbers of people.

我们面临的现实挑战是,很糟糕通常很多城市的开发建设太分散,大量土地被粗放地浪费。这样牺牲了人们的生活品质,造成了远距离通勤,建成区太分散,城市就负担不起高质量、高效的公共交通。当然,这样还破坏了环境,人们分散出行,导致了私人小汽车的过度使用。幸运的是,现任联合国人居署执行主任Joan Clos博士十分重视规划。他在各种场合表明支持规划的作用。这是我们一直期望的,我们作为专业人士感到非常振奋。

The challenge we have is that often unfortunately in most cities, development occurs in a disperse pattern with a huge consumption of land. It is devastating for the quality of life of people, because they have to travel over very long distance, because its past development doesn’t justify economically the good and efficient public transport. Of course it is devastating for the environment, because of the access abuse of private automobiles, and individual motorized solutions to transportation and mobility. So we are very lucky that the present executive director of UN-Habitat believes in planning. And he has argued very strongly in favor of planning. I think this is very very welcome, we have been waiting this for a very long time.

意大利规划学会国际事务协调人Pietro Garau(左)和中国城市规划学会秘书长石楠(右)

最后,我还想补充一点。我认为各国的规划学会应当多加接触,增进合作。举个例子,我们意大利规划学会在跟中国城市规划学会副理事长兼秘书长石楠的接触中发现,中国城市规划学会和意大利规划学会的立会目标基本一致,而且举办了很多相似的活动。但是在此之前,我们没有接触过,所以完全不知道。我感谢这次中国城市规划学会邀请我们学会参加“世界城市日”活动,我们两家学会签署了合作备忘录,我相信未来我们将收获丰硕的成果。未来我们学会也将与其他类似的学会扩展合作关系,一起推动落地的项目。当然,各国学会之间的合作关系将与国际城市与区域规划师学会的业务有所区别,国际城市与区域规划师学会有其自身的主要业务领域。

I would just like to add something to respond to your question. I think, for example, national planning associations must come together, much more explicitly and much more efficiently. For example, we discovered in working with UPSC secretary general Dr. Shi Nan. His institute and my institute have practically the same goals. And the same kind of activities. But we had never known this before, we had never worked together before. So we take this opportunity of this kind invitation that my institute receive to come to this event to sign a partnership agreement with UPSC, which I am sure will be very fruitful. The thing that I will be doing in the next future will be to extend this partnership to other associations that are willing to do concrete specific things. Without of course duplicating the work of ISOCARP and the like, because they have their own agendas.

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